- Advertisement -


HYGIENE (Personal Hygiene)  – Definition, Morning and Evening Care, Personal Hygiene, Care of Hair, Maintaining Hair Care, Hair Combing, Hair Wash/Bed Shampoo, Pediculosis Treatment, Care of the Eyes, Nose and Ears, Oral Hygiene, Care of Dentures, Bed Bath, Care of Hands, Feet and Nails, Care of Pressure Points/Bedsore, Care of the Perineum, Clothing, Exercise, Habits, Sex and Health and Mental Health



  • Hygiene: hygiene is defined as the science and art which is associated with the prevention and promotion of health. Hygiene is science of health, which includes all the factors contributing to healthful living.
  • Habits: habits are the highly automated and self-executed behavior of man. Habits can be related to physical activities or mental like those related to paying attention or thinking
  • Personal hygiene: personal hygiene implies to those principles of physical cleanliness and mental health, which are practiced by a person at individual level
  • Sexual health: sexual health is an integration of the somatic, emotional intellectual and social aspects of sexual being, in ways that positively enrich and enhance the personality, communication and love
  • Mental health: mental health is defined as the capacity in an individual to form harmonious relations with others and to participate in or contribute constructively to the changes in his social and physical environment
  • School hygiene: school hygiene or school health is a branch of community health to facilitate optimum health to school children. It also includes prevention of diseases, early diagnosis
  • Attitude: it is a mental structure or framework that includes motivational, perceptual, emotional and cognitive reactions. It also manifest the individual concepts, thoughts or imaginations, which direct his behavior towards a specific direction
  • Health behaviors: it includes all those activities and actions adopted by man as a protection against diseases. The concept of health behavior includes rules of personal health, good health habits, and taking preventive steps against diseases
  • Menstrual hygiene: menstrual discharge is a normal physiological process. Menstrual hygiene describes the basic elements of hygiene during menstruation to promote feeling of well-being and prevention of diseases. This hygiene practices includes daily bath, keeping the genital organs clean and dry, placing a clean sanitary pads and taking proper nutrition and rest


The word hygiene has evolved from the Greek term “Hygia” which means “Goodness of Health”. Hygiene is the science of health and includes all factors which contribute to healthful living. Hygiene is the science of health and it preservation, it also refers to practices that are conducive to good health. Good personal hygiene is important to a person’s general health.


Hygiene defined as “the science and art which is associated with the preservation and promotion of health”. 

Hygiene is defined as that “science of health, which includes all the factors contributing to the healthful living”

Types of Hygiene

  • Social hygiene: social medicine has replaced the word social hygiene, it objective to study man as a social animal in its total environment. The scope of social medicine includes science of social structure and functions, social pathology and social treatment, etc
  • Industrial hygiene: occupational health, which has broader meaning. Its scope is extended up to the health of labor working in all types of occupation and different aspects of health
  • School hygiene: school hygiene or school health is an important branch of community health, which facilitating optimum health to school children
  • Preventive medicine: nowadays, a broader term community medicine is used. Preventive medicine plays primary role in immunization as specific protection and general methods of improvement in health
  • Personal hygiene: personal hygiene or personal health implies to those principles of physical cleanliness and mental health. Personal hygiene is not only limited to taking care of body and keeping it clean, rather the mental and spiritual aspects are also an integral part of it

Factors Influencing Hygiene Practices

  • Personal preferences: each individual has his own desires and preferences about when to bathe, shave, and perform hair care. Same way each individual select different products according to the personal preferences, needs and financial resources. The nurse assists the client in delivering individualized care to the client
  • Social practices: social groups influence hygiene practices and preferences. During childhood, hygiene practices are influenced by family customs and as children enter their adolescent years, hygiene practices may be influenced by the peer group behavior. During the adult years, work groups and friends shape the expectations of people and in the older adults hygiene practices may change because of living conditions and available resources
  • Socioeconomic status: the type and extent of hygiene practices are influenced by a person’s economic resources. The nurse determines which products/supplies, the client can afford
  • Health belief and motivation: knowledge regarding the importance of hygiene for well-being influences hygiene practices. Only knowledge is not enough. The client must be motivated to maintain self-care
  • Cultural beliefs: a client’s cultural beliefs and personal values influence hygiene care
  • Physical condition: certain type of physical limitations or disabilities often lacks the physical energy to perform hygiene care e.g. a client with traction or who has an intravenous line, will need assistance for hygiene maintenance


A patient’s bath may be given at any time, according to the patient’s needs, but certain routines are generally followed on a ward.

Morning Care

  • The  procedure followed in the morning affects the patient’s comfort throughout the day
  • Each morning before breakfast, the patient should be assisted to the bathroom, or a bedpan or urinal should be provided, according to the patient’s activity level
  • The patient is then given the opportunity to wash his/her hands and face and brush his/her teeth. The bed linen is straightened, and the over bed table is cleaned in preparation for the breakfast tray
  • After breakfast, the patient has a complete bath (type is dependent upon the patient’s condition and mobility), mouth care, a change of clothing and a back massage
  • Bed linens are changed; and the unit is cleaned and straightened to provide a comfortable and safe environment for the patient

Evening Care

  • The care the patient receives at the end of the day greatly influences the patient’s level of relaxation and ability to sleep
  • An opportunity is provided for elimination; the patient’s hands and face are washed; the teeth are brushed; a back rub is given
  • Bed linens are straightened; the patient’s unit is straightened to ensure comfort and safety. It is important that there are no items, which the patient could slip on, or fall over, such as chairs or linens, on the floor


Personal hygiene has a significant role in every society. Every culture develops and maintains its standards and methods of maintaining personal cleanliness. Habits are formed for performing actions to keep the body clean and functioning normally.

Personal hygiene includes all those personal factors which influence the health and well-being of an individual. It consists of the body regarding bathing and washing, care of hair, nails and feet, mouth cleanliness and care of the teeth, care of the nose and ears, clothing, postures, exercises, recreation, rest and relaxation, sleep habits and nutrition

Personal hygiene is necessarily maintained for a person’s comfort and well-being. A variety of personal and socio-cultural factors influence the client’s hygiene practices. The nurse determines a client’s ability to perform self-care and provides hygienic care according to the client’s needs and preferences. While providing hygiene, the nurse must preserve as much client’s independence as possible, ensure privacy, convey respect and foster the client’s physical comfort.

personal hygiene for patients - nursing procedure - nurseinfo


Personal hygiene defined as that “the healthy practices and lifestyle helps in the maintenance and promotion of individual health physically, emotionally, socially and spiritually”

Purposes of Personal Hygiene and Protect from Disease

  • To prevent illness
  • To promote good health
  • To improve the standard of health
  • To maintain quality life of an individual
  • To promote mental well-being
  • To promote socially and spiritually health
  • To improve the self-esteem in the society
  • To maintain resistance and prevent form infection

Principles of Personal Hygiene

  • Hygiene practices are learnt
  • Changes occur throughout the life span, it also affects the health care practices
  • Individual differences exit from one individual to other
  • Health practices of people vary with cultural values and personal values
  • Health practices directly influences the physical, mental, social and spiritual health of an individual
  • Good health practices prevent entry of microorganisms into the body
  • Nature acts as a first line of defense on human health natural light and ventilation

Factors Influences on Personal Hygiene

  • Social practices: social groups influence including the type of personal care. During childhood, hygiene is influenced by family customs
  • Personal preferences: each person has individual desires and preferences about when to bath, shave and perform hair care. Individual selects different products according to personal preferences, needs and financial resources
  • Body language: an individual general holds for the person. Body image is a person’s subjective concept of his or her physical appearance. These images can change frequently. When individual undergo surgery, illness or a change in functional status, body image can change dramatically
  • Socioeconomic status: a person’s economic resources influence the type and extent of hygiene practices used. Socioeconomic status may influence his or her ability to regularly maintain hygiene
  • Health beliefs and motivation: knowledge about importance of hygiene and its implication for well-being influences hygiene practices. However, knowledge alone is not enough. The individual also must be motivated to maintain self-care
  • Cultural variables: an individual’s cultural beliefs and personal values hygiene care. People from diverse cultural background follow different self-care practices. Culturally maintaining cleanliness may not hold the same importance for some ethnic groups as it does for others.
  • Physical condition: the nurse quickly learns that clients with certain types of physical limitations or disabilities often lack of physical energy and dexterity to perform hygienic care. A client in traction or a cast or who has an intravenous line or other device connected to the body will need assistance with hygiene

Importance of Personal Hygiene

  • Maintenance of physical hygiene in a state of health is a personal value and individual responsibility
  • Personal hygiene helps maintenance of physical and psychological homeostasis
  • Personal hygiene helps to promote individuals comfort, safety and well-being
  • A clean mouth and teeth aids to the patients a feeling of self-approval
  • Healthy hygienic practices and technique, which provides economy of time, material and energy
  • Stimulation of circulation by massage and brushing is essential to maintain the hair healthy
  • Keeping the scalp clean by brushing and shampooing will help to relieve form dandruff
  • Moving the body joints in their whole range of movement helps to prevent muscle contraction and improve circulation
  • Good personal hygiene is essential during sickness as well as in health

Nurses Role in Personal Hygiene

  • Direct provision of hygienic care provides the nurse with an ideal opportunity for daily assessment of the patient’s physical and emotional state
  • The process of daily bathing, oral hygiene, care of the hair, nails and massage forms a vital part of the nurse-patient interaction
  • The nurse should assess the needs of patients and identifying related nursing problems
  • The nurse needs to collect further information about the patient’s identified problems
  • The nurse needs to develop an appropriate nursing care plan in terms of the data collected and relevant nursing principles
  • The nurse has to implement the nursing care plan to provide optimum quality of nursing care for individual patients
  • The nurse has to evaluate the success of the nursing care plan and adjusting it to meet the patient’s changing needs
  • The nurse also participates in carrying out the physician’s orders and refers to the physician pertinent observations and information about the patient
  • The nurse has to motivate the patient to resume independence and responsibility for care as the condition permits
  • The nurse must apply knowledge of pathophysiology to provide good preventive hygienic care. The nurse has to integrate knowledge of anatomy, physiology and pathology during hygienic care
PATIENT PERSONAL HYGIENE - Definition , Purpose, Procedure, Nurse Role in Patient Hygiene
PATIENT PERSONAL HYGIENE – Definition , Purpose, Procedure, Nurse Role in Patient Hygiene






Please enter your comment!
Please enter your name here

- Advertisement -
- Advertisement -

Related article

Nurse Info