NEPHROLITHIASIS

NEPHROLITHIASIS – Etiology, Risk Factors, Pathophysiology, Types, Signs and Symptoms, Diagnostic Evaluation and Management Nephrolithiasis is also called the renal calculi, are hard, usually small stones that form somewhere in the renal structure. The stones are masses of crystals and protein that form when the urine became supersaturated with a salt capable of forming solid …

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GLOMERULONEPHRITIS

GLOMERULONEPHRITIS – Etiology, Types, Pathophysiology, Signs and Symptoms, Diagnostic Evaluation and Management INTRODUCTION Immunological processes involving the urinary tract predominantly affect the renal glomerulus, the disease process results in glomerulonephritis. It means inflammation of glomeruli, which affects both kidneys equally. It is a type of kidney disease in which the part of kidney (glomeruli) that …

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CHRONIC GLOMERULONEPHRITIS

CHRONIC GLOMERULONEPHRITIS – Etiology, Pathophysiology, Signs and Symptoms, Diagnostic Evaluation and Management Chronic glomerulonephritis is a kidney disorder caused by slow, cumulative damage and scaring of tiny blood filters in the kidneys. These filters known as glomeruli, remove waste products from the blood. In  chronic glomerulonephritis, scarring of glomeruli impedes the filtering process, trapping waste …

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RESPIRATORY FAILURE

RESPIRATORY FAILURE – Classification, Etiology, Pathophysiology, Clinical Manifestation, Diagnostic Evaluation and Management INTRODUCTION The most important function of the respiratory system is to provide oxygen to the body tissues and remove the carbon dioxide. The body relies primarily on the central nervous system, the pulmonary system, the heart, and the vascular system to accomplish the …

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REHABILITATION OF DISASTER VICTIMS

REHABILITATION OF DISASTER VICTIMS – Challenges of Rehabilitation, Kinds of Reactions and Psychosocial Interventions In the post-disaster period, along with relief, rehabilitation and the care of physical health and injuries, mental health issues need to be given importance. Apart from material and logistic help, the suffering human beings will require human interventions. CHALLENGES OF REHABILITATION …

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EMERGENCY CONDITIONS – SHOCK

EMERGENCY CONDITIONS – Shock (Etiology, Pathophysiology, Signs and Symptoms, Diagnostic Evaluation and Management) SHOCK Clinical syndrome characterized by decreased tissue perfusion and impaired cellular metabolism resulting in an imbalance between the supply and demand for oxygen and nutrients ETIOLOGY AND PATHOPHYSIOLOGY Cardiogenic shock occurs when either systolic or diastolic dysfunction of the pumping action of …

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PULMONARY HYPERTENSION

PULMONARY HYPERTENSION – Introduction, Types, Etiology, Pathophysiology, Clinical Manifestations, Diagnostic Evaluations and Management INTRODUCTION Pulmonary hypertension (PH) is high blood pressure in the arteries to lungs. It is a serious condition. The blood vessels that carry blood from heart to lungs become hard and narrow. Heart has to work harder to pump the blood through. …

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