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Nursing Notes and Guide for Nursing Students and Nurses


Welcome to our Nursing Notes Collection – a comprehensive resource tailored for healthcare professionals dedicated to the art and science of nursing. Explore a rich array of nursing notes encompassing various disciplines, including medical-surgical, pediatric, obstetric, psychiatric, and more. Our goal is to foster a community of learning and collaboration among nursing professionals. Feel free to peruse our collection, share your own experiences, and engage with fellow nurses in discussions that promote excellence in patient care and documentation.







Foundational Sciences: Embark on your nursing education journey by delving into foundational sciences. Subjects like Anatomy, Physiology, and Microbiology lay the groundwork for understanding the intricacies of the human body, its functions, and potential health challenges.

Fundamental Nursing Skills: Master the fundamental skills essential to nursing practice. Subjects like Health Assessment, Nursing Fundamentals, and Patient Care equip you with the core competencies required for providing safe and effective care.

Medical-Surgical Nursing: Explore the complexities of medical-surgical nursing, where subjects such as Adult Health, Pharmacology, and Surgical Nursing provide a deeper understanding of caring for adult patients across various health conditions and treatment modalities.

Maternal and Child Health: Delve into the unique aspects of maternal and child health through subjects like Obstetric Nursing, Pediatric Nursing, and Neonatal Care. Gain insights into prenatal care, childbirth, and pediatric development.

Mental Health Nursing: Understand the nuances of mental health and psychiatric care. Subjects such as Psychiatric Nursing and Mental Health Assessment guide you in providing compassionate care to individuals facing mental health challenges.

Community and Public Health: Broaden your perspective with subjects focusing on community and public health. Epidemiology, Community Health Nursing, and Public Health Policy provide knowledge on preventive care, health promotion, and population-based interventions.

Specialized Nursing Fields: Embark on a specialized path by exploring subjects such as Critical Care Nursing, Oncology Nursing, and Emergency Nursing. These subjects cater to those interested in specific areas of healthcare, offering in-depth knowledge and skills.

Nursing Research and Evidence-Based Practice: Develop a strong foundation in nursing research and evidence-based practice. Subjects such as Research Methods and Evidence-Based Nursing guide you in critically evaluating and applying the latest research findings to your clinical practice.

Leadership and Professional Development: Prepare for leadership roles with subjects focusing on leadership, management, and professional development. Nursing Ethics, Leadership in Nursing, and Health Policy empower you to navigate ethical dilemmas and contribute to the advancement of healthcare systems.

Technology in Nursing: Stay ahead of the curve by exploring subjects related to technology in nursing. Electronic Health Records, Health Informatics, and Telehealth in Nursing provide insights into leveraging technology for improved patient care.

Do click each subject link to read and enjoy the respective nursing notes you require.

nursing notes and guide for nursing students and nurses


Wide array of Nursing Procedure Hub – an invaluable resource designed to equip healthcare professionals with comprehensive guidance on essential nursing procedures. As the backbone of patient care, well-executed nursing procedures are critical in promoting positive health outcomes and ensuring the well-being of those under our care.

In the ever-evolving landscape of healthcare, staying abreast of evidence-based practices and procedural guidelines is paramount. Our curated collection of nursing procedures aims to serve as a trusted companion for nurses, nurse practitioners, and students alike, offering clear and concise instructions for a wide array of clinical scenarios.

Within this hub, you will find step-by-step guides, accompanied by insightful explanations, visuals, and best practice recommendations. Whether you are a seasoned professional looking to refresh your skills or a student embarking on your clinical journey, our resource is designed to cater to all levels of expertise.

We cover a diverse range of nursing procedures, spanning from fundamental skills such as patient assessment and medication administration to more specialized techniques in critical care, obstetrics, pediatrics, and beyond. Each procedure is meticulously detailed to provide not only the “how” but also the “why,” ensuring a deep understanding of the rationale behind each step.

Do click each subject link to read and enjoy the respective nursing notes you require.




The patient is usually hospitalized in the same department from which they are discharged. The health condition changes in some patients so much that they are transferred and treated by another department or another treatment unit of the same or different department or in the same or another healthcare facility


Transfer is defined as preparing patient, completing necessary records and shifting patient to another department within the hospital or to another hospital/home

Transfer/referral is the preparation of a patient and the referral records to shift the patient to other department within the hospital or to another hospital


  • To obtain necessary diagnostic tests and procedure
  • To provide treatment and nursing care
  • To provide specialized care
  • To place most appropriate utilization or available personnel and services
  • To match intensity of nursing care based on patients level of needs and problems
Patient Transfer Nursing Procedure - Key Important Points

Preparation Includes

  • An explanation of the transfer to the patient and his family
  • Discussion of the patient’s condition and care plan with the staff at the receiving unit or facility
  • Arrangements of transportation, if necessary

Types of Transfer of the Patient

  • Internal transfer: to transfer the patient in a unit that provides special care or care suited to his needs, e.g. from general ward to ICU
  • External transfer: to transfer the patient from one hospital to other hospital for the purpose of special care, e.g. from general hospital to specialized hospital – cancer centre

Preliminary Assessment

  • Assess the method for transport, inform receiving nurse
  • Maintain patient’s physical well being during transport to new nursing unit
  • Provide verbal report about patient’s condition to the receiving unit nurse
  • Be sure all documentation including care plan is completed
  • Assist patient’s arrival to the new unit
  • Announce patient’s arrival to the new unit
  • Transport patient to a new room and assist in transfer to bed
  • Hand over to receiving nurse


  • Wheelchair/stretcher
  • Identification labels
  • Patients belongings
  • X-rays, investigation reports, patient record and file

Preliminary Assessment

  • Check the doctor’s order for transfer of patient
  • Inform the patient and relatives
  • Inform to the ward sister where the patient  needs to be transferred
  • Check the chart for complete recording of vital signs, nursing care and treatment given
  • Collect patient’s X-ray, medicine and other belongings
  • Cancel the hospital diet or transfer
  • Assist the relatives to collect other belongings
  • Make arrangement to settle the due bills if going to another hospital
  • Record time, mode of transfer and general condition of the patient
  • Assist in transferring risk patient to wheelchair/stretcher and accompany patient to new area
  • Handover patient documents, belongings and report verbally to the incharge nurse/and sister
  • Collect the ward articles
  • Inform to the concern person/department regarding transfer of the patient
  • Clean unit thoroughly and keep ready for next patient


  • Explain the transfer to the patient and his family. If the patient is anxious about the transfer or his condition precludes patient teaching, be sure to explain the reason for the transfer to his family members especially if the transfer is the result of a serious change in the patient’s condition. Assess his physical condition to determine the means of transfer, such as a wheelchair or a stretcher
  • Using the admissions inventory of belongings as a checklist, collect the patient’s property. Be sure to check the entire room, including the closet, bedside stand, over bed table, and bathroom
  • Gather the patient’s medications from the cart and the refrigerator. If the patient is being transferred to another unit, send the medications to the receiving unit; if he is being transferred to another facility, return them to the pharmacy
  • Notify the business office and other appropriate departments of the transfer
  • Have a staff person notify the dietary department, the pharmacy, and the facility telephone operator about the transfer (if within the facility)
  • Contact the nursing staff on the receiving unit about the patient’s condition and drug regiment and review the patient’s nursing care plan with them to ensure continuity of care

Transfer within the Family

  • If the patient is being transferred from or to an intensive care unit, your facility may require new care orders from the patient’s physician
  • Send the patient’s chart, laboratory request slips, Kardex, special equipment, and other required materials to the receiving unit
  • Use a wheelchair to transport the ambulatory patient to the newly assigned room
  • Introduce the patient to the nursing staff at the receiving unit. Then take the patient to his room and depending on his condition, place him in the bed or seat him in a chair. Introduce him to his new roommate, if appropriate, and tell him about any unfamiliar equipment such as the call bell

Transfer to an Extended-Care Facility

  • Make sure the patient’s physician has written the transfer order on his chart and has completed the special transfer form. This form should include the patient’s diagnosis, care summary, drug regimen, and special care instructions, such as diet and physical therapy
  • Complete the nursing summary, including the patient’s assessment, progress, required nursing treatments, and special needs, to ensure continuity of care
  • Keep one copy of the transfer form and the nursing summary with the patient’s chart, and forward the other copies to the receiving facility

Transfer to an Acute-Care Facility

  • Make sure the physicians have written the transfer order on the patient’s chart ad has completed the transfer form as discussed above. Then complete the nursing summary
  • Depending on the physician’s instructions, send one copy of the transfer form and nursing summary and photocopies of pertinent excerpts from the patient’s chart such as laboratory test and X-ray results, patient history and physical progress notes, and record of vital signs to the receiving facility with the patient

Special considerations: if the patient requires an ambulance to take him to another facility, arrange transportation with the social services department. Ensure that the necessary equipment is assembled to provide care during transport


Record the time and date of transfer, the patient’s condition during transfer, the name of the receiving unit or facility, and the means of transportation



Definition, Purpose, Types of Transfer, Equipment, Nurses Procedure, Documentation
Definition, Purpose, Types of Transfer, Equipment, Nurses Procedure, Documentation






Patient transfers involve moving a patient from one location to another, such as from a bed to a wheelchair or from a wheelchair to a stretcher. Proper techniques are crucial to ensure the safety of both the patient and healthcare provider. Here are key points to consider during patient transfer procedures:

  1. Assessment:
    • Assess the patient’s mobility level, strength, and any potential complications or restrictions.
    • Evaluate the need for assistance and the type of transfer equipment required.
  2. Communication:
    • Communicate clearly with the patient, informing them about the transfer procedure and seeking their cooperation.
    • If the patient is able, instruct them on their role during the transfer.
  3. Check Equipment:
    • Ensure that all transfer equipment, such as slings, transfer belts, or transfer boards, is in good condition.
    • Verify the functionality of any mechanical lifting devices.
  4. Team Collaboration:
    • If the transfer requires more than one healthcare provider, coordinate and communicate effectively with the team.
    • Assign specific roles and responsibilities to each team member.
  5. Patient Positioning:
    • Position the patient close to the edge of the bed or surface from which they will be transferred.
    • Ensure that the patient’s feet are flat on the floor for stability.
  6. Use of Transfer Aids:
    • Utilize appropriate transfer aids such as transfer boards, slide sheets, or mechanical lifts, as needed.
    • Ensure proper training and competence in using any assistive devices.
  7. Body Mechanics:
    • Maintain proper body mechanics to prevent injuries to both the patient and the healthcare provider.
    • Bend at the knees, not at the waist, and use the strength of your legs rather than your back.
  8. Lift Technique:
    • When lifting the patient, use smooth and controlled movements.
    • Lift with the legs, keeping the back straight, and avoid twisting or reaching.
  9. Transfer to Wheelchair or Stretcher:
    • Ensure the wheelchair or stretcher is positioned at the appropriate height and angle for a safe transfer.
    • Use a controlled descent when lowering the patient onto the new surface.
  10. Secure the Patient:
    • Once transferred, ensure the patient is properly positioned and secure on the new surface.
    • Apply any safety straps or restraints as necessary and appropriate.
  11. Reassess and Comfort:
    • Reassess the patient for any signs of distress or discomfort.
    • Provide any necessary comfort measures, such as adjusting pillows or blankets.
  12. Documentation:
    • Document the transfer procedure, including any challenges, the equipment used, and the patient’s response.
    • Note any observations related to the patient’s condition.
  13. Patient Education:
    • Provide education to the patient and caregivers on safe transfer techniques and precautions.
    • Encourage the patient to ask for assistance and not attempt transfers independently if it poses a risk.


BANDAGING (Definition, Purpose, General Principles, Types and Techniques)

A bandage is a strip of fabric used to dress and bind up wounds. In medicine, bandage refines and elaborates upon this basic form, combining it with casts, slings, and splints to heal all kinds of injuries. It is important to do the proper bandaging technique when using and administering first aid on a wound or injury. The main goal of placing a bandage on an injury is for immobilization, protection, support or compression. If the bandaging technique is not done properly, it could exacerbate the damage.


A bandage is any gauze or cloth material used for any of the purpose to support or to hold or to immobilize the body part. Bandaging is a technique of application of specific roller bandages to different parts of body


  • To control bleeding by pressure
  • To immobilize sprained or fractured limb
  • To hold a dressing or compress in place
  • To secure splints in case of fracture of deformity
  • To protect open wound from contaminants
  • To provide support and aid in case of varicose veins or impaired circulation


  • The patient should be placed in a comfortable position and it should convenient for the nurse
  • The position of the part to be ban aged should be well supported and elevated if necessary
  • The nurse should stand directly in front of the patient or facing part to be damaged
  • A bandage should accomplish its purpose. It may be used to hold dressing in place, to support a part or to immobilize
  • Apply and fix bandage at least two circular turns around part is its smallest diameter, so that it can stay in place
  • Skin surfaces should be separated. They may be separated. They may be separated by either gauze or cotton. In the application of casts, special padding is used over bony prominences
  • Always bandage to the right
  • Exert even pressure as far as possible. The bandage should be done in the direction of the venous circulation
  • Do not cover the ends of the finger or toes, unless it is necessary in order to cover the injury. It is necessary to observe circulatory changes
  • Never apply a wet bandage. When wet bandage applied, terms to shrink and become tight as it dries
  • Do not apply a bandage too loosely because it may slip and expose the wound
  • All turns of bandage should be made clockwise unless there is some special reason for doing otherwise the roll should be held in the palm of the hand, with the free end of the bandage coming from the part of the roll
  • Applying bandage, secure terminal extremity by pinning with safety pins or strapping adhesive
  • Remove bandages by gathering folds in a loose mass. Passing mass from one hand to the other
  • Examine the bandage part frequently for pain, swelling, etc
Bandaging Nursing Procedure - Important Key Points


A roller bandage is a strip of gauze or cotton material prepared in a roll. Roller bandages can be used to immobilize injured body parts (sprains and torn muscles), provide pressure to control internal or external bleeding, absorb drainage, and secure dressings. Three types of bandages are the Kerlex bandage, the gauze bandage, and the elastic bandage

Kerlex bandage: the bandage is absorbent, loosely woven, and conforms easily to uneven surfaces, such as the hand, wrist, elbow, shoulder, groin, knee, ankle, and foot. The Kling bandage is similar to the Kerlex’s bandage. These bandages are used primarily for bleeding injuries

Gauze roller bandage: the gauze roller bandage is absorbent, loosely woven, cotton fabric. It does not conform well to uneven surfaces and is not to be used on areas prone to chafing such as shoulders, elbows, groin and other jointed areas. It is used primarily on bleeding injuries on the upper arm, forearm, thigh and lower leg

Elastic Roller Bandage: the elastic roller bandage is composed of cloth and elastic that allows it to stretch and retract. It conforms to uneven surfaces and applies even pressure to the area covered. It is used to apply pressure and/or restrict movement. The elastic bandage is normally used when a sprain needs to be immobilized. Make sure the bandage is not right enough to restrict blood flow unless it is used as a pressure dressing


Circular bandage: the bandage is wrapped around the part with complete overlapping of the previous bandage turn. This is used primarily for anchoring a bandage where it is begun and where it is terminated

Spiral bandage: the bandage ascends in a spiral manner so that each turn overlaps the preceding one by one half or two-thirds the width of the bandage. The spiral turn is useful for the wrist, the finger and the trunk

Figure-of-eight: the figure-of-eight turn consists of making oblique overlapping turns that ascend and descend alternatively. It is effective for use around joints, such as the knee, the elbow, and the ankle.

Recurrent-stumps bandage: after a few circular turns to anchor the bandage the initial end of the bandage is placed in the center of the body part being bandaged, well back from the tip to be covered. Recurrent bandages are used for gingers for the hand and for the stump of an amputated limb

T-bandage: it is used to secure rectal or perineal dressing. The double “T” bandage is used for males and single “T” bandages is for the females. The strips of the “T” bandage are brought between the patients leg and is pinned to the waist band in front


  • Gauze
  • Muslin
  • Rubber
  • Elastic
  • Flannel
  • Crinoline for plaster
  • Adhesive


  • Inspect and palpate the area for swelling
  • Inspect for the presence of and status of wounds
  • Note the presence of drainage (amount, color, odor, and velocity)
  • Inspect and palpate for adequacy of circulation (skin temperature, color and sensation)
  • Ask the patient about any pain experienced (location, intensity, onset and quality)
  • Assess the ability of the patient to reapply the bandage when needed
  • Assess the capabilities of the patient regarding activities of daily living (to dress, comb hair, bath)


Clean bandage of the appropriate material and width, safety pin, adhesive tape, and special metal clips


  • Explain to patient
  • Make sure that the area to be bandaged is clean and dry
  • Stand opposite to the patient if possible
  • Support the affected part adequately ensuring correct body alignment to prevent deformity and impair circulation
  • Keep bandage roll uppermost with free and above site to be bandaged
  • Bandage from below to upward
  • Cover two – thirds of previous turn, avoid loose edges
  • Take requires number of turns so that purpose is achieved.
  • Secure the end of the bandage with tape. Metal clips or a safety pin over an uninjured area
  • Document the site and type of bandage used


  • Eye bandage (monocular): bandage of 1.5-2 width is required. Place the free end of bandage at temporal region on the same side of eye to be bandaged. A piece of tape is passed under bandage on side of  eye and tie so as to prevent bandage from sliding over good eye
  • Binocular bandage: figure-of-eight technique is used. Start from right temporal region take one turn. Around head, down over the left eye, under right ear right eye to right to left temple. Repeat around heal to right temple following previous pattern until both eyes are covered
  • Ear-mastoid bandage: bandage with 2 feet width and 5 yards length is required make circular turns around head above ears, beginning on affected side. Follow with circular turns. The first turn is taken beneath occiput, and carried high over to opposite side of head below ear
  • Jaw Barton bandage: used in fracture of lower jaw and to hold dressing on chin. Bandage of 2 inches width and 5-6 yards length is required. Begin at nape of neck below occiput, carry bandage obliquely up, behind and close to ear, then under chin and up in front of left ear to top of head
  • Cape line bandage (head bandage): a double roller bandage of 2 feet width and 8 yards length is required. Place center of bandage in middle of forehead and carry roller in opposite direction to occipital. Cross rollers one over other. The roller in inferior position in brought over head to middle of forehead
  • Shoulder spica: a bandage of 2 ½ inches width and 8 yards is required. The spica may be either descending or ascending. The ascending type is most commonly used. While applying bandage, stand at side which is to be bandage. A pad must be placed in axilla.


Guidelines in Using Dressing and Bandages

There are certain guidelines to follow to ensure proper bandaging technique.

  • Use a dressing that is large enough to go beyond at least 1 inch of the wound edges
  • For exposed body tissues or organs, make sure to cover the wound with non-stick dressing, e.g. moistened gauze or plastic. Secure the dressing using adhesive tapes or bandages
  • For bandages over a point, keep the joint immobilized by creating a bulky dressing
  • Ensure that the bandage is tight but not too tight to cut off circulation. Signs that circulation is cut off include color change (to bluish) especially of the extremities, tingling sensation, feeling cold, or swelling. Once these begin to show, loosen the bandage.
  • Bandaging technique will depend on, the first aider’s skills, the size and location of the wounds, and the materials available

Triangular Bandage

The first bandaging technique to be discussed is the triangular bandage. The triangular bandage is one of the most standard contents of a first aid kit. It has plenty of uses, such as a sling to support an injury to the upper body, padding for major wounds and a bandage for immobilization purposes. It is quite easy to make and they are as follows:

  • Stretch the piece of fabric that will be used. Opt to use a long stretch to create more triangular bandages, which can be used in the fracture
  • Cut the fabric into a square, approximately 3 ft multiply 3 ft. cut the square diagonally into two equal halves, creating two triangle
  • There are two ways to sterilize the bandages (sterilizing will reduce infection risk). First option is to pull the bandage in boiling water. The second option is to soak the bandage in hydrogen peroxide or any other disinfectant. Dry before use
  • If possible, iron the triangular bandage, so it can be easily used during a time of need

Roller Bandage

The second bandaging technique to be discussed is the roller bandage. Similarly, the roller bandage is a standard for many first aid kits and has many practical uses. These include controlling bleeding, pressure bandage and keeping the dressing in place. The following are the steps to make a roller bandage:

  • Allow the individual to stay in a position where they are most comfortable. Give enough support to the affected part before beginning to apply the bandage. Hold the “head” end of the bandage while using the “tail” end to wrap the affected part. Wrap the affected area only a few centimeters at a time to ensure that tightness is maintained
  • After each turn, begin with a locking turn to hold the start of the bandage in place
  • One has two options, whichever is more applicable. Begin from the middle part of the affected part or limb moving toward an outward direction. The second option is to begin with the narrowest part, below the dressing, and moving upward
  • Ensure that each turn of bandage will cover two thirds of the prior turn of bandage
  • Cover the dressing or padding used completely
  • Finish with a straight turn at the end of the bandage. Use an adhesive tape to secure the roller bandage in place


Many bandages are simple to use and are available in hospitals and the community.

Many of the products can be bought over the counter and used without any supervision from a healthcare professional. Because of the range of products available today, it is no longer necessary to be able to carry out the many complicated bandaging techniques that used to be taught in nurse training, such as the application of the many-tailed bandage or the thumb spica. However, this does not detract from the fact that bandaging is a skill and the application of proper bandages requires thorough training and assessment of competence.

Selecting an appropriate method of fixation requires thought, identification of the main objectives, and common sense. The overriding objective must be to retain a dressing or support a limb but consideration must also be given to the practicalities of the patient’s daily life.

BANDAGING (Definition, Purpose, General Principles, Types and Techniques)
BANDAGING (Definition, Purpose, General Principles, Types and Techniques)



Bandaging is an essential nursing procedure that involves the application of dressings and bandages to wounds or injuries. Here are key points to consider when performing bandaging procedures:

  1. Hand Hygiene:
    • Wash hands thoroughly before and after the procedure to prevent the risk of infection.
  2. Assessment:
    • Assess the wound type, size, and condition before choosing an appropriate dressing and bandage.
    • Evaluate the patient’s skin condition and any allergies to materials or adhesives.
  3. Gathering Supplies:
    • Ensure all necessary supplies are readily available, including dressings, bandages, tape, scissors, and any prescribed topical medications.
  4. Explain the Procedure:
    • Communicate the procedure to the patient, explaining the purpose and expected outcome.
    • Obtain informed consent if required.
  5. Positioning:
    • Position the patient comfortably, exposing the wound while maintaining their privacy and dignity.
  6. Wound Cleaning:
    • Clean the wound gently with a prescribed solution or sterile saline.
    • Use aseptic technique to minimize the risk of infection.
  7. Dressing Application:
    • Apply the appropriate dressing, ensuring it covers the wound adequately.
    • Choose dressings based on the wound’s characteristics, such as moisture level and depth.
  8. Bandage Selection:
    • Select a suitable bandage material, considering the purpose (compression, support, or protection).
    • Ensure the bandage is of the correct size and length to secure the dressing adequately.
  9. Technique:
    • Employ proper bandaging techniques to secure the dressing without impairing circulation or causing discomfort.
    • Be mindful of tension and avoid applying the bandage too tightly.
  10. Securing the Bandage:
    • Use appropriate fastening methods, such as clips, adhesive strips, or self-adherent bandages.
    • Ensure the bandage is secure but not too tight to allow for adequate blood circulation.
  11. Labeling and Documentation:
    • Clearly label the dressing with the date, time, and initials.
    • Document the procedure, including wound assessment, type of dressing used, and the condition of the surrounding skin.
  12. Education:
    • Educate the patient and caregivers on proper care, signs of infection, and when to seek medical attention.
    • Provide written instructions for home care if applicable.
  13. Follow-up:
    • Schedule follow-up appointments to monitor the wound’s progress and reassess the bandaging as needed.
    • Modify the bandaging technique based on the wound’s healing trajectory.


HOME VISIT – COMMUNITY HEALTH NURSING (Concept of Home Visiting, Purposes, Principles, Steps and Advantages)


Home visits are an integral part of community health nursing, allowing healthcare professionals to provide personalized care and support to individuals and families within their homes.

The community health nurse work with families is in different settings including clinics, schools, support groups, office and the family home. Home visits give a more accurate assessment of the family structure and behavior in the natural environment

Home visits also provide opportunities to observe the home environment and to identify barriers and support for reaching family health promotion goods. Health services in the home requires technical skills, knowledge of preventive and therapeutic measures, teaching ability, judgment and a full understanding of human relations

Home visit refers to meeting the health needs of people at their doorsteps. Health services given at home for patient, family and the community in general for nursing service and health counseling


  • Home visiting provides opportunity to make direct observation on home environment, family structure, familial roles and relationships, life style, cultural practices, group dynamics, etc. and make family health assessment.
  • In home visiting the members are relaxed, have more time and privacy and feel free to raise questions, seek clarifications and sort out their problems
  • It provides opportunities to make direct observation of care given by family members in planning and implementing family health care services
  • It provides opportunities to contact and interact with most of the family members and establish report with the family as a whole
  • It also make possible to have active participation of family members in planning and implementing family health care
  • It makes feasible to plan and provide comprehensive family health care with major emphasis on promotive and preventive care


  • It is a routine part of a planned visiting program by community health personnel
  • It helps to investigate the source of infectious diseases
  • To do follow up on some problems identified in the health center, school, industry or hospital
  • To assess the nutritional and immunization status, environmental hazards
  • To give health education to the individual, family and community
  • To supervise and guide other health workers


  • Need Based: home visiting should be planned and conducted based on the identified needs of the people
  • Priority based: the home visit should give to the existing problem in the family. It may be maternal and child health services or antenatal checkup
  • Regularity: plan for regular home visiting programs based on family needs. It should be conducted at regular intervals
  • Flexibility: the community health nurse should adopt a flexible approach based on prevailing circumstances at home
  • Scientific based: be sure of the scientific soundness of the subjects used for discussion. Use of technical skills includes hand washing an inspection
  • Analysis based: collect facts about the home, the patient and the environment and make an objective analysis of the facts as an initial step in visiting the home
  • Developing relationship: work with the person and family plan jointly. Home visiting helps to establish good working relationship in the family
  • Sensitivity: the community health nurse should be sensitive to the persons feeling and needs at the time of the visit. Listen to the family and understand the other person’s point of view
  • Educative: evaluate your own work remember the quality of care is more important than the number of home visits. It is essential to evaluate home visits from time to time


  1. Initial phase: the community health nurse should collect information from clinical and other records before planning for a visit. During home visit, she has to assess or observe and make a note in initial visit

The community health nurse should introduce and establish a friendly relationship by using simple language. Assess physical and environmental status, family’s cultural background, occupation and income of family members, age, educational factors and psychological factors influences

  • Action phase: the interpersonal relationship starts when nurse enters into the house. The nurse should use their effective communication skills to implement the nursing process. During home visit, nurse practice a variety of roles when interviewing in patient care. The community health nurse has to take a role as collaborator, consultant, co-coordinator, preventor of disease, promoter of health, health educator and an epidemiologist, and takes steps to implement nursing process

During action phase the community health nurse provides nursing care, e.g. taking temperature, physical examination and dressing, etc. demonstrating and teaching, e.g. teaching insulin self-administration. She makes diagnosis and tentative nursing care plan based on establishing priorities

  • Termination phase: nurse-patient goals are reached, health is restored and the patient can function without actions. The nurse records the important events in the family and reports the problems of the family. Evaluation of home visit is a continuous process


  • The nurse can directly observe home and family atmosphere
  • The nurse can directly observe the care given to patient by the family members
  • It is possible to discover new health problems
  • The family members will be more relaxed in their own surroundings
  • The family gains confidence and feels to clear their doubts
  • This helps to apply the gained knowledge and skills in the homes assisting and solving individuals and families health problems
HOME VISIT – COMMUNITY HEALTH NURSING (Concept of Home Visiting, Purposes, Principles, Steps and Advantages
HOME VISIT – COMMUNITY HEALTH NURSING (Concept of Home Visiting, Purposes, Principles, Steps and Advantages






1. Assessment:

  • Conduct a thorough assessment of the home environment, including living conditions, safety hazards, and available support systems.

2. Purpose of the Visit:

  • Clearly define the purpose of the home visit, whether it is for routine check-ups, health education, medication management, post-discharge follow-up, or addressing specific health concerns.

3. Appointment and Consent:

  • Schedule home visits at convenient times for the client and obtain consent for the visit. Respect the client’s privacy and autonomy.

4. Communication:

  • Establish effective communication with the client and their family. Listen actively, address concerns, and encourage open dialogue to better understand their needs.

5. Cultural Competence:

  • Be culturally competent and respectful of the client’s cultural practices, beliefs, and values. Consider cultural factors when planning and delivering care.

6. Safety Precautions:

  • Assess and address safety concerns in the home, including fall risks, fire hazards, and other environmental factors. Provide education on maintaining a safe living space.

7. Medication Management:

  • Review medications with the client, ensuring proper administration and understanding. Address any concerns or questions regarding medications.

8. Health Education:

  • Provide individualized health education on topics such as chronic disease management, nutrition, hygiene, and preventive care. Use visual aids and written materials as needed.

9. Family Involvement:

  • Involve family members or caregivers in the care plan, as appropriate. Consider their support and collaboration in maintaining the client’s health.

10. Health Promotion: – Encourage and facilitate healthy lifestyle choices. Discuss strategies for maintaining or improving health and preventing illness.

11. Assessment of Activities of Daily Living (ADLs): – Evaluate the client’s ability to perform daily activities, such as bathing, dressing, and eating. Provide assistance or make recommendations for improvement as needed.

12. Monitoring and Follow-up: – Establish a plan for ongoing monitoring and follow-up. Determine the frequency of home visits based on the client’s needs and the nature of the healthcare issue.

13. Documentation: – Document the home visit thoroughly, including assessments, interventions, education provided, and any changes in the client’s health status. Maintain accurate and up-to-date records.

14. Collaboration with Other Healthcare Providers: – Collaborate with other healthcare professionals involved in the client’s care, such as physicians, therapists, and social workers. Ensure a coordinated and holistic approach.

15. Respect for Autonomy: – Respect the client’s autonomy and involve them in decision-making regarding their care. Encourage them to express their preferences and goals for health and well-being.

Home visit - Community Health Nursing  - important key points



Care of hair is part of the personal hygiene. It is another way of helping the patient feel good about him and maintain a good mental attitude. A patient’s hair should be combed daily. In addition, other care is necessary to enhance morale, stimulate circulation of the scalp and prevent tangled, matted hair

Purposes of Hair Care

  • Hair care improves the morale of the patient
  • It stimulates the circulation of the scalp
  • Shampooing removes bacteria, microorganisms, oils, and dirt that cling to the hair


  • To maintain cleanliness of the scalp and hair
  • To prevent matting of hair
  • To promote comfort and to stimulate circulation of the scalp
  • It gives an opportunity of observation of the scalp and hair
  • It maintains a glossy and healthy appearance of hair and gives satisfaction to the patient

Scientific Principles

  • Well-combed and attend hair provide comfort to the patient and make appearance more attractive
  • Neglected hair and scalp contain dirt and microorganism and also produce infection of the scalp
  • Unbroken skin acts as a barrier to infection

Types of Hair Care

  • Daily care: the hair should be thoroughly combed and brushed daily. A woman usually needs more attention to the hair due to its length
  • Hair shampoo: shampooing the hair in order to maintain its cleanliness
  • Treatment of hair: pediculosis treatment – it is the treatment given with DDT 5% of carbolic lotion 1:40 applied thoroughly on the scalp and it is left for overnight, and the next day a thorough bath is given and the linen is change


Care of hair means maintaining cleanliness of hair, i.e. free from dandruff, dirt, nits, lice, flakes, dryness and irritation


  • To keep hair clean and healthy
  • To promote growth of hair
  • To have a neat and tidy appearance
  • To prevent itching, infection, dandruff, lice, flakes, dryness and irritation
  • To prevent loss of hair
  • To prevent accumulation of dirt
  • To stimulate circulation
  • To prevent tangles
  • To promote comfort
  • To have a sense of well-being

Three Aspects of Hair Care

  1. Daily care by brushing and combing
  2. Head bath in order to maintain to cleanliness
  3. Treatment of hair for lice infestation

Factors Influence on Hair

  • General health of a person
  • A well-balanced diet
  • Light and fresh air
  • Daily practices (hair wash and combing)
  • Hair brushing and massage
  • Endocrine disorder

Factors Affecting Hair

  • Altered level of consciousness
  • Physical weakness or disease condition
  • Immobility and aging
  • Insect bite and infestations
  • Accumulated secretions
  • Hormonal changes
  • Physical and emotional stress
  • Poor health practices
  • Effects on drug

Common Hair Scalp Problems

  • Dandruff – sealing of scalp accompanied by itching
  • Pediculosis – lice infestation
  • Alopecia – hair loss
  • Tangled and matted hair
  • Dryness
  • Flakes
  • Irritation


The hair can be combed and washed in the morning so that the patient can feel refreshed and appear well-groomed before starting daily activities

General Instructions

  • Hair needs to be brushed daily in order to be healthy
  • Long air should be combed at least once a day to prevent it from matting
  • Teeth of the comb should be dull to prevent scratching of the scalp
  • Hair must be kept free from snarls, combed and brushed without hurting the patient

Preliminary Assessment


  • Doctors order for specific precautions
  • General condition and self-care ability
  • Condition of the scalp and hair
  • Mental status to follow directions
  • Articles available in the unit

Preparation of the Patient and Environment

  • Explain the procedure
  • Arrange the article at the bedside
  • Provide privacy and adequate light
  • Make the patient to sit on a bedside chair or stool
  • Protect the bottom sheet and pillow case with a towel
  • Protect the nurse’s uniform by wearing aprons


  • Clean comb
  • Mackintosh and towel
  • Coconut oil in a container
  • Kidney tray and paper bag
  • Kidney tray with carbolic lotion 1:20 to destroy the lice and to disinfect the comb


  • Wash hands and take required articles at bedside
  • If possible as patient to sit on a stool otherwise side lying or fowler’s position
  • Place the Mackintosh under the head of the patient
  • Each half of the hair is treated separately without causing strain on the patient
  • Separate the hair in small strands. To prevent pulling hold strands above the part being combed, so that there will be no pain to the patient
  • Comb the tangle out from the ends first and then go up gradually. Use oil to remove tangles
  • After combing the hair thoroughly, use ribbon to tie the hair
  • Discard loose hair into the paper bag

After Care

  • Place the patient comfortable and tidy
  • Replace the articles to the utility room
  • Wash hands thoroughly
  • Record and report the procedure in nurse’s record sheet

Problems of Neglected Hair Care

Neglected hair care cause sticky and heavy and acquires a sour, unpleasant odor, which may be quite distressing the patient. Pediculosis is associated with poor hygiene, crowded living condition and exposure to other individuals.

The people with pediculosis have complaints of severe itching of the scalp and scratch the head continuously giving rise to abscess formation. The lice are blood suckers and cause anemia. They also spread disease, e.g. typhus fever, relapsing fever, trench fever.


The patient confined to bed will require a cleansing shampoo at least every two weeks. With the approval of the medical officer, plan the shampoo for a time when the patient feels rested and has no conflicting treatments or appointments. If the patient can be moved to a stretcher, do so and take him to a convenient sink. If this is not possible, do the shampoo in bed


Hair wash/bed shampoo is a special care of the hair may be required for patients who are in bed for a prolonged period of time

Shampooing the hair should be performed whenever the hair and scalp are dirty

Principles of Shampooing the Bed Patient’s Hair

  • The supine position is preferred for weaker patients
  • Patients with significant heart or lung disease will not tolerate being supine; they must be in a sitting position
  • Hair care should be given regularly during illness, just as it would be normally


  • To keep hair and scalp clean and healthy
  • To promotes sense of comfort and self-esteem
  • To complete the treatment of pediculi

General Instructions

  • The patients are given hair wash at least once a week for bedridden patients
  • Avoid hair wash for patients who have just taken meals at least for an hour
  • Avoid exposure and chilling by keeping the patient covered with top clothes
  • If the patients are very sick, note pulse before and after the hair wash
  • Do not let the patient exert and try to avoid exertion to the patient as far as possible

Preliminary Assessment


  • Doctors order for specific precautions
  • General condition for the patient
  • Self-care ability
  • Patients preference for soap, shampoo, oil, etc
  • Patients mental state to follow instructions
  • Availabilities of ward article

Preparation of the Patient and Environment

  • Explain the procedure
  • Arrange the articles at the bedside
  • Provide privacy
  • Position the patient (flat) comfortably to the edge of the bed (if condition permits)
  • Remove the extra pillows and back rest
  • Make an improvised through (Kelly’s pad) and place it under the hand to facilitate the drainage of water in to receptacle
  • Place the bucket on the low stool close to the side of the bed. The distal end of the Mackintosh (trough) is received in to it
  • Plug the ear with cotton balls


  • A tray contains bath towels – 2
  • Face towel – 1
  • Long Mackintosh – 1
  • Cotton swabs – 2
  • Liquid soap  or shampoo
  • Hair comb
  • Kidney tray
  • Paper bag and news paper
  • Bucket – 1
  • Mug – 1
  • Jugs – 2 (hot and cold water)
  • Safety pins


Following is the procedure for administering a shampoo to a patient in bed

  • Place a newspaper on the chair and the bucket on the newspaper. Place the patient of water, shampoo, comb, brush, and one of the two bath towels on the bedside cabinet
  • Move the patient to the near side of the bed. Lower the bed to a level position
  • Pull the pillow down under the patient’s shoulders to assisting extending the neck. Fold one bath towel around the neck
  • Place the narrow side of the rubber sheet under his head and over the edge of the pillow. Roll the sides of the sheet to improvise a trough, and place the free end in the bucket
  • Give the patient a washcloth for his eyes and face
  • Check provisions for water drainage before pouring any water
  • Wet his hair and apply shampoo. Lather and rinse it
  • Reapply shampoo and rinse the hair again repeatedly until his hair is “squeaky clean”. (a woman will require more rinse water than a man, but otherwise the procedure is unchanged)
  • Slip a dry towel under the patient’s bed. Then roll and remove the rubber sheet. Pull the pillow up into its normal place
  • Dry the hair by gently rubbing it with a clean towel
  • Remove the equipment and wipe up any water spilled on the floor
  • Assist the patient to comb and brush his hair with a clean comb and brush

After Care

  • Place the patient in comfortable position
  • Dry the hair, comb and arrange hair when completely dry
  • Change linen if wet
  • Replace the articles into utility room
  • Wash hands thoroughly
  • Record and reporting the procedure in nurses record street
CARE OF HAIR - MAINTAING PATIENT HAIR, HAIR COMBING, HAIR SHAMPOO METHODS, Definition, Purpose, Equipment, Procedure, After care
CARE OF HAIR – MAINTAING PATIENT HAIR, HAIR COMBING, HAIR SHAMPOO METHODS, Definition, Purpose, Equipment, Procedure, After care






Here are some general hair care tips to help maintain healthy and beautiful hair:

  1. Regular Washing:
    • Wash your hair regularly to keep it clean and free from excess oil and product buildup. The frequency may vary depending on your hair type.
  2. Use a Mild Shampoo and Conditioner:
    • Choose a shampoo and conditioner that suits your hair type and is free from harsh chemicals. Avoid excessive use of styling products with strong chemicals.
  3. Avoid Hot Water:
    • Wash your hair with lukewarm or cool water. Hot water can strip the hair of natural oils, leading to dryness and damage.
  4. Proper Conditioning:
    • Use a good-quality conditioner to keep your hair moisturized and manageable. Focus on the tips and mid-lengths of your hair while applying conditioner.
  5. Protect Your Hair from Heat:
    • Limit the use of heat-styling tools such as flat irons, curling irons, and blow dryers. When using them, apply a heat protectant spray to minimize damage.
  6. Regular Trims:
    • Schedule regular haircuts to prevent split ends and keep your hair looking healthy. Trimming every 6-8 weeks is a good rule of thumb.
  7. Gentle Towel Drying:
    • Pat your hair dry with a soft towel instead of rubbing vigorously, which can cause breakage. Avoid using a towel on wet hair, as it is more prone to damage.
  8. Protect Your Hair from the Sun:
    • UV rays can damage your hair. If spending extended periods in the sun, consider wearing a hat or using hair products with UV protection.
  9. Balanced Diet:
    • A nutritious diet rich in vitamins and minerals contributes to healthy hair. Include foods high in protein, iron, and omega-3 fatty acids.
  10. Avoid Tight Hairstyles:
    • Avoid hairstyles that pull on the hair, such as tight ponytails or braids, as they can cause breakage and damage the hair shaft.
  11. Use a Wide-Toothed Comb:
    • Detangle your hair gently using a wide-toothed comb, especially when it’s wet to prevent breakage.
  12. Hydrate:
    • Stay hydrated as it also contributes to the health of your hair. Dehydration can make your hair dry and brittle.
  13. Limit Chemical Treatments:
    • Minimize the use of chemical treatments like coloring, perming, or straightening, as they can weaken the hair structure.
  14. Choose Silk Pillowcases:
    • Silk pillowcases can reduce friction, helping to prevent tangles and breakage.
  15. Manage Stress:
    • High stress levels can contribute to hair problems. Practice stress management techniques like meditation or yoga.
Tips to maintain healthy and beautiful hair - important tips


HOT WATER BAG – HOT APPLICATION – Purpose, Preliminary Assessment, Preparation of Patient and Environment, Equipment, Procedure and After Care

Hot water bag is a common method of applying local dry heat. It used as both a therapeutic and a conform measure.

Hot water bag application is defined as process of applying dry heat by means of a rubber bag on specific part of body


  • To provide comfort and warmth
  • To stimulate circulation
  • To relieve pain
  • To relax muscles
  • To promote healing
  • To relieve congestion and inflammation
  • To relieve bladder distension

Preliminary Assessment


  • Doctors order for any specific instructions
  • General condition of the patient
  • Type of application to be used, duration and frequency of treatment
  • Inspect the part for any lesions
  • Presence of any contraindications for the application of heat
  • Self-care ability to follow instruction
  • Articles available in the unit

Preparation of the Patient and Environment

  • Explain the procedure to the patient
  • Provide privacy, if needed
  • Expose only the part that needs treatment
  • Place in a comfortable position
  • Arrange the articles at the bed side


  • Hot water bag with cover
  • Jugs – 2
  • Duster – 1
  • Towel – 1
  • Vaseline or oil
  • Bath thermometer


  • Wash hands
  • Check hot water bag for any leakage
  • Check the temperature of water with a bath thermometer
  • The temperature should be 105 to 115 degree F for children and 115 to 125 degree F for adults
  • Keep the bag on flat surface
  • Pour hot water into bag until 2/3rd full
  • Expel excess air by permitting water to come to mouth of bag and then close
  • Hold bag upside down to check for leakage
  • Wipe outside with duster put into flannel cover and apply to part
  • Expose only the part that needs treatment and apply it. Apply the hot water bag over the area and cover it with the towel or sheet
  • Provide warmth by covering all nontreatment areas with bath blanket or bed covers
  • Remove bag after about 20 to 30 minutes

After Care

  • Dry the area if, moist the perspiration
  • Inspect the part for redness
  • Position the patient comfortably on the bed
  • Cover the patient with sheets and remove the drapes if any
  • Empty the bag and hang upside down
  • Replace the articles after cleaning
  • Wash hands
  • Record the procedure in nurse’s record sheet
Hot water bag application - hot application - KEY POINTS

General Instructions

  • The water should not be hot enough to burn the patient
  • The temperature of the water should be between 105 to 115 degree F for children and 115 to 125 degree F for adult
  • Air should be expelled out from the hot water bag because air in the bag will interfere with the conduction of heat
  • In case of unconscious patient, patient in shock or as infant that hot water bag should be placed outside the blanket covering the patient
  • Assess the condition of the patient prior to, during and after the application of the heat, watch for the vital signs
  • Maintain the correct temperature for entire duration of the application
  • Check the position of hot water bag frequently when the patient is very sick or unconscious


  • Open wounds
  • Hypertension
  • Metabolic disorders
  • Impaired kidney, heart and lung functions
  • Acute inflammations
HOT WATER BAG – HOT APPLICATION – Purpose, Preliminary Assessment, Preparation of Patient and Environment, Equipment, Procedure and After Care
HOT WATER BAG – HOT APPLICATION – Purpose, Preliminary Assessment, Preparation of Patient and Environment, Equipment, Procedure and After Care






Hot water bag application, also known as hot water bottle therapy, is a common method of applying heat to relieve pain or discomfort. Here are key points to consider when using a hot water bag:

  1. Indications:
    • Hot water bags are typically used to provide comfort and relieve muscle aches, joint pain, menstrual cramps, and other localized discomforts.
  2. Inspection:
    • Before use, inspect the hot water bag for any signs of damage, leaks, or wear. Ensure that the cap or stopper is secure.
  3. Type of Hot Water Bag:
    • Choose the appropriate type of hot water bag. Some are made of rubber, while others may be made of alternative materials. Follow the manufacturer’s guidelines.
  4. Temperature Regulation:
    • Fill the hot water bag with water at a temperature that is comfortable and safe for the patient. Avoid using boiling water to prevent burns.
  5. Preventing Burns:
    • Wrap the hot water bag in a towel or cloth before applying it to the skin. This helps prevent direct contact and reduces the risk of burns.
  6. Application Time:
    • Follow the recommended application time based on the healthcare provider’s instructions. Prolonged exposure can lead to skin damage.
  7. Positioning:
    • Ensure that the hot water bag is securely placed on the affected area. Avoid placing excessive pressure on the bag to prevent leaks.
  8. Monitoring:
    • Regularly check the patient’s skin for signs of irritation, redness, or burns during and after the application.
    • Ensure that the patient can tolerate the heat and is comfortable with the application.
  9. Patient Education:
    • Instruct the patient on the proper use of the hot water bag.
    • Advise them to report any discomfort, skin changes, or adverse reactions promptly.
  10. Storage and Maintenance:
    • Store the hot water bag in a cool, dry place when not in use.
    • Periodically check for wear and tear, and replace the hot water bag if it shows signs of damage.
  11. Contraindications:
    • Avoid using hot water bags in certain conditions such as acute inflammation, open wounds, or impaired sensation.
  12. Documentation:
    • Record the application details, including the duration, temperature, and the patient’s response, in the patient’s medical record.


NURSING PROCEDURE – HOT APPLICATION (Definition, Purpose, Classification, Physiological Effects, Principles, Complications and General Instructions

Thermotherapy is the use of heat to treat symptoms of acute or chronic pain, especially those related to muscle tension or spasm. It is also a common treatment for arthritis, bursitis, tendonitis, back pain, shoulder pain and other kinds of joint pain. Hot applications result in an increase in molecular vibration and cellular metabolic rate. This form of treatment is divided into two categories, namely, superficial and deep heating modalities. These are further divided into chemical, electric or magnetic. Temperatures range from 105 to 170 degrees Fahrenheit (41 to 77 Degree celcius). Superficial modalities include infrared lamps, moist heat packs, paraffin baths, and warm whirlpools. Deep heating modalities include microwave diathermy, shortwave diathermy, and ultrasound. The body reacts with a series of local and systemic effects.


Hot application means the application of an agent warmer than the skin. Heat is applied in either a moist or dry form.


  • Heat decreases pain
  • To provide comfort
  • To promote circulation
  • To promote suppuration
  • To relax the muscles
  • To promote healing
  • To relieve deep congestion
  • To soften the exudates
  • To stimulate peristalsis
  • To counteract sudden drop in temperature
  • To decrease joint stiffness
  • To relieve bladder distention


Hot Applications – Local and General

Local – Dry Heat and Moist Heat


Dry Heat – hot water bottles, chemical heating bottles, infrared rays, shot wave diathermy, heating lamps, electric cradles, and electric heating pads

Moist Heat – warm soaks (local baths), hot fomentations (compresses), poultices (cataplasm), stupes (medical fomentations), paraffin baths, sitz bath and aquathermia pad


Dry Heat – sun bath, electric cradles, and blanket bed

Moist Heat – steam baths, hot packs and whirlpool bath (full immersion bath)

Physiological Effects

Primary Effects

  • Peripheral vasodilatations
  • Increased capillary permeability
  • Increased local metabolism
  • Increased oxygen consumption
  • Blood-flow is increased
  • Blood viscosity is decreased
  • Lymph flow is increased
  • Motility of leukocytes is increased
  • Muscle tone is decreased

Secondary Effect

The primary effect of hot application may last only for 20 to 40 minutes. After this time, the heat application must be discontinued and recovery time of one hour allowed, otherwise secondary effects (vasoconstriction) will take place.


  • Heat is not used because heat increases the metabolism
  • Heat is not used for the patients with impaired kidney, heart and lung functions
  • Heat should not be applied to acutely inflamed areas e.g. acute appendicitis and tooth abscess
  • Heat should not be applied on patient with paralysis weak and debilitated patients
  • Heat should not be applied when there is open wounds and bleeding
  • Heat should not be applied when there is edema associated with venous or lymphatic diseases
  • Heat should not be applied on patients with metabolic disorder. E.g. patients with diabetes, arteriosclerosis
  • Heat should not be applied on patients with high temperature


  • Heat causes dilation of blood vessels and increases the blood supply to the area
  • Heat stimulates metabolism and the growth of the new cells and tissues
  • The end organs of the sensory nerves in the skin convey the sensation of heat; the sensations are interpreted in the brain
  • Water is a good conductor of heat
  • The flow of heat is from the hotter area to the less hot area
  • Presence of stream increases the temperature of the hot applications
  • The temperature tolerance varies with individuals and according to the site and area covered
  • Friction produces heat


  • Pain
  • Burns
  • Maceration (with moist heat)
  • Redness of the skin
  • Edema
  • Hyperthermia
  • Pallor (secondary effect)

General Instructions

  • Protect damaged skin layers exposed layers of skin are more sensitive to temperature variations than skin layer
  • Check a patient frequently during hot application, the condition of the skin indicates whether tissue injury is occurring
  • Do not allow a patient to adjust temperature settings
  • Never position a patient in such a way that he cannot move away from the temperature source. This avoids the risk of injuries from temperature exposure
  • Never ignore the complaints of a patient however small they appear to be









NURSING PROCEDURE – HOT APPLICATION (Definition, Purpose, Classification, Physiological Effects, Principles, Complications and General Instructions
NURSING PROCEDURE – HOT APPLICATION (Definition, Purpose, Classification, Physiological Effects, Principles, Complications and General Instructions






Hot applications, also known as thermal therapy, involve the application of heat to a specific area of the body for therapeutic purposes. Here are some key points for the hot application nursing procedure:

  1. Indications:
    • Hot applications are typically used to promote vasodilation, increase blood flow, and relax muscles.
    • Commonly used for conditions such as muscle spasms, joint stiffness, and localized pain.
  2. Types of Hot Applications:
    • Hot packs, warm compresses, electric heating pads, and warm baths are common forms of hot applications.
    • Each type may be chosen based on the specific needs of the patient and the area of the body being treated.
  3. Assessment:
    • Assess the patient’s skin condition, sensitivity, and ability to perceive heat accurately.
    • Identify the specific area of the body that requires the hot application.
  4. Contraindications:
    • Avoid hot applications in cases of acute inflammation, open wounds, or impaired circulation.
    • Be cautious with patients who have sensory deficits or conditions that affect the ability to perceive temperature.
  5. Patient Education:
    • Explain the purpose of the hot application and the expected therapeutic effects.
    • Educate the patient about the importance of reporting any discomfort or changes in sensation during the procedure.
  6. Application Technique:
    • Follow the healthcare facility’s protocols for the specific type of hot application being used.
    • Ensure that the temperature is safe and comfortable for the patient, avoiding extremes that could cause burns.
  7. Monitoring:
    • Regularly check the patient’s skin for signs of redness, blistering, or any adverse reactions.
    • Monitor the patient’s response to the hot application, including pain relief and increased comfort.
  8. Duration:
    • Follow the recommended duration for the hot application as per the healthcare provider’s orders.
    • Prolonged exposure may lead to complications such as burns.
  9. Documentation:
    • Record the type of hot application used, duration, patient’s response, and any observations in the patient’s medical record.
  10. Follow-up:
  • Evaluate the effectiveness of the hot application in alleviating symptoms.
  • Adjust the treatment plan as needed based on the patient’s response.



GNM (Nursing Assistant) Nursing colleges approved by INC (Indian Nursing Council) and ANC(Assam Nursing Council ) are listed below with address details. We have
included the list of government nursing colleges in Assam

list of GNM (Nursing Assistant) nursing colleges in Assam

list of private nursing colleges in Assam

list of government diploma nursing colleges in Assam

list of Indian nursing council approved nursing colleges in Assam

The Management details of each college that is the college belongs to government or private is also mentioned. Students can check the list and apply to the colleges they wish.


1Arya School Of Nursing Village – Nij Sindurighopa (Chowkigate) Po & Ps- Changsari Changsari   Dist. Kamrup (R), AssamPrivate
2Assam Institute Of Nursing Sri Durga Sarani Meherpur Botertol, Silchar Botertol  Dist. Cachar, AssamPrivate
3Assam Nursing Institute Amgurikhat,Dhodar Ali,Titabar  Johrat , AssamPrivate
4Assam Oil School Of Nursing C/O Indian Oil Corporation, Assam Oil Division Hospital Digboi Digboi  Dist. Tinsukia, AssamPrivate
5Burrow Memorial Christian Hospital P O Banskandi  Silchar   Dist. Cachar, AssamPrivate
6C P M S School Of Nursing  School Of Nursing, Bonda, Amgaon, Narengi Guwahati  Guwahati  Dist. Kamrup, AssamPrivate
7Dispur Hospitals School Of Nursing Ganeshguri Chariali Dispur Guwahati Dist. Guwahati, AssamPrivate
8Dispur Nursing Institute H No – 51, Near Basistha Mandir, Basistha, Guwahati Guwahati , AssamPrivate
9Down Town School Of Nursing G S Road Dispur Dispur, Guwahati Guwahati  , AssamPrivate
10Gnm Training School Nalbari Maternity Hospital, Alternative Road, Nalbari Alternative Road, Nalbari Ward No. 11 Nalbari  Dist. Nalbari, AssamPrivate
11Haji Abdul Majid Memorial Nursing School Hamm Hospital Complex, Main Road, P O – Hojai District Nagaon, Assam – 782435 Hojai , AssamPrivate
12Hayat Institute Of Nursing Education 171, D D Complex – Ii, Sundarpur R G B Road  R G B Road Guwahati  Dist.
Kamrup, Assam
13Institute Of Nursing Education (Ine), Krishnaguru Adhyatmik Visvavidyalaya, Nasatra, Barpeta  Sarthebari , AssamPrivate
14International Hospital School Of Nursing Lotus Tower, G S Road, Guwahati District Kamrup, Assam Guwahati , AssamPrivate
15J.B. School Of Nursing J.B. Campus, Suncity Lane, House No-3, Baghorbori Road,Ambari, Satgaon, P.O-Udayan Vihar  Guwahati , AssamPrivate
16Jorhat Christian Medical Centre School Of Nursing, Jail Road Borbheta  Jorhat Dist. Jorhat, AssamPrivate
17Lower Assam School Of Nursing Chapaguri Road  Chapaguri Road  Dist. Bongai Gaon, AssamPrivate
18Mercy School Of Nursing Mercy Hospital, No-2, Mullapatty, P.O- Khutikatia  Haiborgaon,  Nagaon Nagaon , AssamPrivate
19Nepni School Of Nursing  Hno 57, Idgah Road, Pakiza Nagar Sijubari Hatigaon Main Road, Dispur Guwahati Dist. Kamrup, AssamPrivate
20P Baruah School Of Nursing No 2, Beside Dichang Resort, Patarkuchi,Tepesia, Bye Lane Panjabari Branch, Panjabari Guwahati Dist. Kamrup, AssamPrivate
21Pratiksha School Of Nursing Near Central Training Institute, Chandrapur Road P.O + P.S Panikhaiti Opposite Nrl Oil Pump, Nh-37 Guwahati  Dist.
Guwahat, Assam
22Purbottar Institute Of Nursing Ghoramara Chariali, Khanka Road, Guwahati-28   Guwahati , AssamPrivate
23Rahman Hospitals School Of Nursing Radha Nagar, Vip Road P.O & P.S- Satgaon, Chandrapur Guwahati  Dist. Kamrup (Metro), AssamPrivate
24S D Sahewalla Memorial School Of Nursing, Aditya Hospital, Gopinath Bordoloi Avenue, Po: Jalan Nagar Bordalai Avenue, Dibrugarh- 786005, Assam Dibrugarh , AssamPrivate
25Sankar Madhab School Of Nursing Gandhi Nagar, Panikhaiti Panikhaiti, Guwahati Guwahati  Dist. Kamrup, AssamPrivate
26School Of Nursing Baptist Christian Hospital, Mission Charali Tezpur Tezpur Dist. Sonitpur, AssamPrivate
27School Of Nursing North East Technical Education Society (Netes) Mirza Shantipur Guwahati  Dist. Kamrup, AssamPrivate
28School Of Nursing, Oil India Hospital Oil India Limited, Duliajan  Duliajan  Dist.
Dibrugarh, Assam
29School Of Nursing, Satribari Christian Hospital K.C Das Road,Po-Rehabari, K C Road, Satribari Guwahati   Dist.
Kamrup, Assam
30Solace Institute Of Nursing  Agia Road Tehsil – Balizana Goalpara  Dist.
Goalpara, Assam
31St Gerosa Institute Of Nursing V G Hospital Boiragimath Boiragimoth P O Dibrugarh  Dist. Dibrugarh, AssamPrivate
32St. Augustine’s School Of Nursing  St Augustine Hospital, Chapaguri Ps – Dhaligaon Bongaigaon  Dist. Chirang, AssamPrivate
33Vknrl School Of Nursing Ponkagrant Numaligarh Guwahati  Dist. Golaghat, AssamPrivate



B.Sc., Nursing colleges approved by INC (Indian Nursing Council) and ANC(Assam Nursing Council) are listed below with address details. We have included the list of government nursing colleges in Assam

list of b.sc., nursing colleges in Assam list of private nursing colleges in Assam list of government diploma nursing colleges in Assam list of Indian nursing council approved nursing colleges in Assam

The Management details of each college that is the college belongs to government or private is also mentioned. Students can check the list and apply to the colleges they wish.

1 Army Institute Of Nursing C/O 151 Base Hospital, Basistha Guwahati Guwahati Dist. Kamrup, Assam Government
2 Arya Nursing College Village – Nij Sindurighopa (Chowkigate)  Po – Changshari Changsari  Dist. Kamrup (R), Assam Private
3 Asian Institute Of Nursing Education, Bye Lane – 1, Usha Nagar, Near Gnrc Dispur, Guwahati  Dist. Kamrup, Assam Private
4 Assam Oil College Of Nursing C/O Assam Oil Division Hospital Digboi Digboi  Dist. Tinsukia, Assam Private
5 Bsc Nursing College Assam Medical College & Hospital A M C Campus Dibrugarh  Dist. Dibrugarh, Assam Government
6 C P M S College Of Nursing Bonda, Amgaon, Narengi  Guwahati  Guwahati Dist. Kamrup, Assam Private
7 College Of Nursing Nemcare Hospital North East Technical Education Society (Netes, G.S.Road Bhangagarh Mirza Shantipur Guwahati  Dist. Kamrup (R), Assam Private
8 Dispur Nursing Institute H No – 51, Near Basistha Mandir, Basistha, Guwahati Guwahati , Assam Private
9 Hayat Institute Of Nursing Education 171, D D Complex – Ii, Sundarpur R G B Road R G B Road Guwahati  Dist. Kamrup, Assam Private
10 Pratiksha College Of Nursing Near Central Training Institute, Chandrapur Road P.O + P.S Panikhaiti  Guwahati , Assam Private
11 Rahman Hospitals College Of Nursing Under Rahman Institute Of Nursing & Paramedical Sciences Radha Nagar, Vip Road P.O & P.S-Satgaon, Chandrapur Guwahati  Dist. Kamrup (Metro), Assam Private
12 Royal School Of Nursing The Assam Royal Global University, Betkuchi, Opp. Tirupati Balaji Temple, Nh 37, Guwahati , Assam Private
13 Sankar Madhab College Of Nursing Gandhi Nagar, Panikhaiti Panikhaiti, Guwahati Guwahati  Dist. Kamrup, Assam Private
14 St Martha Institute Of Nursing H No 102, Haricharan Das Path, Opp.Uco Bank, Lakhara, Guwahati-40, Assam Guwahati , Assam Private