SPUTUM CULTURE

SPUTUM CULTURE

Collection of coughed out sputum for culture studies to identify respiratory pathogens

Purpose

  • To detect abnormalities
  • To diagnose disease condition
  • To detect the microorganisms causes respiratory tract infections
  • To treat with specific antibiotics

Characteristics of Sputum

  • Quantity: normally, no sputum is expectorated the amount of sputum coughed up in 24 hours varies with the diseases
  • Consistency: the sputum may be classified into various types according to its consistency and appearances, e.g. serous, frothy, mucoid, purulent, seropurulent and hemorrhagic
  • Odor: normally the sputum is odorless in case of lung abscess; carcinoma and bronchiectasis the sputum will bed foul smelling
  • Color: sputum consists of mucus it may be:

Colorless and translucent

Yellowish color – presence of pus

Blackish sputum – excessive smoking

Blood – hemoptysis

Red and frothy sputum – freshly bleeding from lungs

Rusty color – altered hemoglobin as seen in pneumonia

Greenish color – bronchiectasis

Brown color – gangrenous condition of the lungs

  • If sputum examined microscopically, a few WBC and epithelial cells may be seen. Eosinophils are found in such conditions as asthma. RBC is found only when there is hemoptysis. The main organism that is looked for in stained sputum is tubercle bacilli (AFB)

General Instructions

  • Give water proof disposal sputum mug on the previous evening and instruct to raise the material from the lungs by coughing and not the saliva
  • Collect the sputum in the morning
  • Ask the patient to rinse the mouth with plain water. Do not use any antiseptic mouth washes
  • If sterile specimens are required sterile bottle with cover is given to the patient

Preliminary Assessment

Check

  • The doctors order for specific instructions
  • General condition and diagnosis of the patient
  • Self-care ability
  • Mental status to follow instructions
  • Articles available in the unit

Preparation of the Patient and Environment

  • Explain the procedure to the patient
  • Arrange the articles at the bedside
  • Provide privacy if needed

Equipment

  • Sterile sputum container
  • Sputum mug or cup
  • Tissue paper
  • K-basin

Procedure

  • Instruct to collect specimen early morning before brushing teeth, to obtain overnight accumulated secretions
  • Instruct to remove and place lid facing upward
  • Instruct not to contaminate inside of lid and container, as well as outside of container
  • Instruct to cough deeply and expectorate directly into specimen container
  • Collect at least 10 ml of sputum
  • Close the container immediately sputum is collected

After Care

  • Label the container with patients name date and hospital number
  • Send specimen to laboratory immediately along with request
  • Replace the equipment after cleaning
  • Wash hands thoroughly
  • Record the procedure in nurse’s sheets
SPUTUM CULTURE - Purpose, Characteristics of Sputum, General Instructions, Preliminary Assessment, Preparation of the Patient and Environment, Equipment, Procedure, After Care
SPUTUM CULTURE Purpose, Characteristics of Sputum, General Instructions, Preliminary Assessment, Preparation of the Patient and Environment, Equipment, Procedure, After Care

Leave a Comment

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *