IMMUNIZATION

IMMUNIZATION – Agents of Immunization and Steps of Vaccine Administration (COMMUNITY HEALTH NURSING)

Immunization is a process of protecting an individual from a disease through introduction of a live, killed or partial component of the living organism into the individual system

AGENTS OF IMMUNIZATION

Vaccines: it is a preparation of an antigen for preventive inoculation which then administered stimulates specific antibody formation in the body

Vaccines may be prepared from live (generally attenuated) organisms, inactivated or killed organisms, extracted cellular fractions

  • Live vaccines are more potent immunizing agents than killed vaccines, live vaccines are prepared from attenuated organisms, e.g. small pox, BCG, oral polio, yellow fever
  • Killed vaccines: organisms killed by heat or chemicals, when injected stimulate active immunity, e.g. typhoid, cholera, plague, whooping cough, poliomyelitis (Salk vaccine). Booster doses are needed to keep up the immunity
  • Toxoid: certain organisms produce exotoxins, e.g. diphtheria and tetanus bacilli. The toxins produced in these organisms are detoxicated and used in the preparation of vaccines
  • Cellular fractions: some vaccines are prepared from extracted cellular fractions, e.g. meningococcal vaccine from the polysaccharide part of cell wall
  • Combinations: if more than one kind of immunizing agent is included in the vaccine, it is called mixed or combined vaccine. The well-known combinations are DPT, DT, DP and MMR

Immunoglobulin: the human immunoglobulin system is composed of 5 major classes – IgG, IgA, IgM, IgD, IgE and subclasses within them

STEPS OF VACCINE ADMINISTRATON

  1. Administering of DPT, DT, and TT:
  2. check the label for correct dose
  3. shake the vial to mix the content well
  4. remove the centre of the metal cap
  5. use 2 ml syringe and 23 G needle to aspirate 0.6 ml vaccine
  6. prepare the baby for intramuscular injection
  7. select the appropriate site and inject quickly
  8. administering OPV:
  9. OPV comes in two types of containers: plastic and glass vial with cover
  10. Let the mother hold the baby firmly lying on his back
  11. Open the child’s mouth by squeezing his cheeks gently between your fingers
  12. Administer correct number of drops usually 2 drops. Also check manufacturer’s instructions
  13. Make sure the dropper should not touch the mouth
  14. Make sure the child swallows. If he spits it out, give another dose
  15. Administration of measles vaccine:
  16. Position the baby with the help of mother
  17. Take 1 ml sterile syringe and 22 G needle
  18. Clean the exposed rubber cap of the vial with spirit swab
  19. Withdraw 0.6 ml of the reconstituted vaccine into the syringe and expel any air bubbles and extra vaccine from the syringe until there is exactly 0.5 ml
  20. Select the upper part of child’s arm, push needle into the pinched up skin and inject the vaccine
  21. Administration of BCG vaccination:
  22. Let the mother hold the baby and free its arm from the clothes
  23. Prepare a tubercular syringe with intradermal needle
  24. Withdraw about 0.8 ml of vaccine and expel the air bubble
  25. Inject BCG vaccine in the left arm hold the syringe by scale pointing upwards
  26. Insert tip of the needle into the sign and keep the needle flat along the skin
  27. Hold the plunger end of the syringe between the index and middle finger of your right hand and press the plunger with your right thumb
  28. Inject 0.1 ml vaccine and withdraw the needle
IMMUNIZATION – Agents of Immunization and Steps of Vaccine Administration (COMMUNITY HEALTH NURSING)
IMMUNIZATION – Agents of Immunization and Steps of Vaccine Administration (COMMUNITY HEALTH NURSING)

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