CORD BLOOD – Constituents of Cord Blood, Purpose, Cord Blood Collection, Cord Blood Banking, Advantages and Disadvantages of Cord Blood
Umbilical Cord Blood (Cord Blood) is the blood which found in the placenta and in the attached umbilical cord after childbirth.
Cord blood contains stem cells which are used to treat hematopoietic and genetic disorders. There are several advantages to use cord blood as a main source of stem cells because these cord blood is less likely to induce immunological reaction during transplantation.
Constituents of Cord Blood
Cord blood contains more number of granulocyte-macrophage (CFU-GM), erythroid (CFU-E), and multipotential (CFU-GEMM) progenitor stem cells. It is composed of substance found in whole blood such as red blood cells, white blood cells and plasma. Along with whole blood and progenitor stem cells, cord blood contain high number of natural killer cells, low level of T-cells and higher level of immature T-cells.
Stem cells are found in cord blood mainly hematopoietic stem cells which is used to for stem cell transplantation during bone marrow transplant. Some non-hematopoietic stem cells is also found, which contain mesenchymal stem cells.
Haematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) are normally found in the bone marrow. Haematopoietic stem cells can make any type of blood cells (red cells, white cells and platelets). These stem cells are needed for blood production. HSCs are used in bone marrow transplants to treat blood diseases.
- Cord blood is used as a source of stem cells.
- Cord blood can be preserved and used in the same individual when stem cell need arises.
- Cord blood is used for allogenic transplant and autologous transplant.
- Cord blood is multipotent stem cells, so it can be used for reconstitution and repaired damaged tissues.
- Cord blood contains T-cell which is immunologically less active than adult marrow or peripheral blood.
- Cord blood is used for stem cell replenishment in hematological malignancies such as acute leukemia, chronic myeloid leukemia and myelodysplastic syndrome.
- Cord blood is also used in non-malignant conditions such as thalassemias, aplastic anemia, hemoglobinopathies and immunodeficiency.
CORD BLOOD COLLECTION
After child birth, physician clamps the umbilical cord in two regions, about 10 inches apart and cut the cord, separating mother from baby. After that doctor collect blood (about 40 ml of blood) from cord using needle. Blood is collected in sealed bag and sent to cord blood bank for storage. The cord blood is cryopreserved in the viable state for many years. These cord blood will be used for the same individual who is need for future use.
CORD BLOOD BANKING
Cord blood is the collected of stem cells from the umbilical cord and placenta either in utero before the delivery of the placenta or ex-utero after its delivery. These cord blood is stored either in private or public cord banks. In Public Cord Banking, Donor can donate cord blood for free for future research as well as for future need for same individual.
In private cord blood banking, individual cord blood is stored for certain period of time for their personal or family purposes. For storage, private cord blood banking will charge for the individual, but it’s expensive.
ADVANTAGES OF CORD BLOOD
- Availability of cord blood
- Lower incidence of graft versus host disease (GVHD)
- Transplantation success rate is high for two different antigens.
DISADVANTAGES OF CORD BLOOD
- High infection rates compared to mature stem cells from bone marrow or peripheral blood (adult donors)
- Multipotent cells but not pluripotent cells.