NURSING INTERVIEW QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS (TECHNICAL)
What is the meaning of nursing?
Nursing is a healthcare profession focused on the care of individuals, families, and communities to promote health, prevent illness, and alleviate suffering. Nurses provide direct care, support, and education to patients and their families, working closely with other healthcare professionals to promote the best possible outcomes for patients. Nursing also involves the promotion of health, prevention of illness and injury, and the advocacy for the rights and well-being of patients. The scope of nursing practice varies depending on the level of education and specialty of the nurse, but all nurses share a commitment to patient-centered care and the promotion of health and well-being.
Who is mother of nursing?
Florence Nightingale is often referred to as the “Mother of Nursing.” She was a British nurse, statistician, and social reformer who is widely recognized for her contributions to modern nursing. During the Crimean War in the 1850s, Nightingale organized and trained a group of nurses to provide care to wounded soldiers, and she revolutionized hospital sanitation and health care practices. She is credited with establishing the first professional school of nursing at St. Thomas’ Hospital in London and was a pioneer in the field of nursing research and statistics. Her dedication to nursing and the improvement of healthcare led to significant improvements in public health and helped to establish nursing as a respected and essential profession.
What are good qualities of nurse?
Empathy: Nurses must be able to understand and share the feelings of their patients, as well as respond to their needs with compassion and kindness.
Communication skills: Nurses must be able to communicate effectively with patients, families, and other healthcare professionals in order to provide optimal care.
Critical thinking: Nurses must be able to think critically and make sound judgments in fast-paced and often stressful situations.
Attention to detail: Nurses must be detail-oriented and able to carefully monitor patients’ conditions and recognize any changes that may require intervention.
Professionalism: Nurses must uphold the highest standards of professionalism, including being reliable, punctual, and respectful to patients and colleagues.
Adaptability: Nurses must be able to adapt to changing situations and work collaboratively with others in the healthcare team.
Patience: Nurses must be patient and able to work with patients who may be anxious, confused, or resistant to treatment.
Physical stamina: Nurses must be physically fit and able to perform the physical demands of the job, which can include standing for long periods of time and lifting and transferring patients.
Emotional resilience: Nurses must be able to cope with the emotional demands of the job, including dealing with difficult or emotional situations and supporting patients and families who may be experiencing trauma or grief.
Lifelong learning: Nurses must be committed to ongoing learning and professional development in order to stay up-to-date with best practices and advancements in healthcare.
What is CPR?
CPR stands for Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation, which is a life-saving technique used to revive someone who has stopped breathing and/or has no pulse. CPR is used in emergencies when a person’s heart has stopped or is not effectively pumping blood to the body’s vital organs. The technique involves chest compressions and rescue breaths, which help to circulate oxygenated blood to the brain and other organs until medical help arrives.
CPR can be performed by anyone trained in the technique, including healthcare professionals and members of the public. It is recommended that CPR be performed as quickly as possible after cardiac arrest in order to increase the likelihood of survival. Proper training in CPR can help individuals to respond quickly and effectively in emergency situations and potentially save lives.
Vital signs are measurable physiological indicators of a person’s health and include:
- Body temperature: The normal body temperature is typically around 98.6 degrees Fahrenheit or 37 degrees Celsius. Abnormal body temperature can be an indication of illness or infection.
- Heart rate: The normal resting heart rate for adults is between 60-100 beats per minute. Heart rate can indicate cardiovascular health and overall physical fitness.
- Blood pressure: Blood pressure is the force of blood against the walls of arteries and is expressed in two numbers, such as 120/80 mmHg. High blood pressure can indicate an increased risk of heart disease and stroke.
- Respiratory rate: The normal respiratory rate for adults is between 12-20 breaths per minute. Respiratory rate can indicate respiratory health and any potential respiratory distress.
- Oxygen saturation: Oxygen saturation is a measure of the amount of oxygen in the blood and is expressed as a percentage. Normal oxygen saturation is typically between 95-100%.
What is the normal blood pressure in adult?
The normal blood pressure for an adult is typically considered to be a reading below 120/80 mmHg.
What is sphygmomanometer?
A sphygmomanometer is a medical device used to measure blood pressure. It consists of an inflatable cuff, a pressure gauge, and a mechanism for inflating and deflating the cuff. The cuff is wrapped around the upper arm and inflated to temporarily stop the flow of blood through the brachial artery. The pressure gauge indicates the pressure within the cuff, which is then slowly released to allow blood to flow back through the artery. As the pressure decreases, the healthcare provider listens with a stethoscope over the artery to hear the sound of blood flow (Korotkoff sounds). The systolic blood pressure (the pressure when the heart beats) is determined by the first sound heard, and the diastolic blood pressure (the pressure when the heart is at rest between beats) is determined by the disappearance of sound. The sphygmomanometer is a crucial tool in diagnosing and managing hypertension, or high blood pressure, and is used routinely in healthcare settings.
What kind of instruments used in ICU?
The instruments used in an ICU (Intensive Care Unit) can vary depending on the specific needs of the patient and the medical facility, but some common instruments and equipment found in ICU settings may include:
- Patient monitors: These devices monitor a patient’s vital signs, such as heart rate, blood pressure, oxygen saturation, and respiratory rate.
- Ventilators: These machines are used to assist with breathing in patients who are unable to breathe on their own.
- Infusion pumps: These devices are used to deliver medications and fluids to a patient’s bloodstream.
- Dialysis machines: These machines are used to remove waste products and excess fluids from the blood in patients with kidney failure.
- Feeding pumps: These devices are used to provide nutrients and hydration to patients who are unable to eat or drink on their own.
- Electrocardiogram (ECG) machines: These machines are used to monitor a patient’s heart rhythm and detect any abnormalities.
- Defibrillators: These devices are used to deliver an electrical shock to the heart in order to restore a normal rhythm in cases of cardiac arrest.
- Bedside ultrasound machines: These machines are used to visualize internal organs and structures in order to guide medical procedures and treatments.
- Intravenous catheters: These tubes are used to deliver medications and fluids directly into a patient’s bloodstream.
- Central lines: These are long, thin tubes that are inserted into a patient’s veins to provide long-term access for medications, fluids, and blood products.
A ventilator machine is a medical device that is used to help a patient breathe when they are unable to do so on their own. It is also sometimes referred to as a mechanical ventilator or a respirator.
The ventilator works by delivering air (and sometimes oxygen) into the patient’s lungs through a breathing tube that is inserted into their airway. The machine uses pressure to force air into the lungs and then allows the patient to exhale. It can be adjusted to provide a specific amount of air at a specific rate, depending on the needs of the patient.
Ventilators are often used in intensive care units (ICUs) for patients who have serious respiratory problems, such as pneumonia, acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), or lung injury. They may also be used during surgery or during the recovery period following surgery.
While ventilators are a life-saving tool, they are also invasive and can carry risks such as infection, lung injury, or other complications. Ventilated patients are closely monitored by healthcare providers to ensure that the machine is functioning properly and that the patient’s condition is improving.
What are the departments in hospital?
Hospitals are complex organizations with many different departments that work together to provide patient care. The specific departments found in a hospital can vary depending on the size of the facility and the services it provides, but some common departments found in hospitals include:
- Emergency Department: This is the department where patients are treated for medical emergencies and critical illnesses.
- Intensive Care Unit (ICU): This is a specialized unit where critically ill patients are monitored and treated by a team of healthcare providers.
- Operating Room (OR): This is where surgeries are performed.
- Radiology: This department uses imaging technologies such as X-rays, CT scans, and MRIs to diagnose and treat medical conditions.
- Laboratory: This is where medical tests are performed on patient samples to help diagnose medical conditions.
- Cardiology: This department specializes in the diagnosis and treatment of heart-related conditions.
- Neurology: This department specializes in the diagnosis and treatment of neurological conditions.
- Oncology: This department specializes in the diagnosis and treatment of cancer.
- Obstetrics and Gynecology (OB/GYN): This department specializes in the care of women during pregnancy, childbirth, and other reproductive health issues.
- Pediatrics: This department specializes in the care of infants, children, and adolescents.
- Pharmacy: This is where medications are prepared and dispensed to patients.
- Physical Therapy: This department helps patients recover from injuries or surgeries by providing exercise, massage, and other therapies.
- Nutrition and Dietetics: This department provides nutritional assessments and counseling to help patients manage medical conditions through diet and nutrition.
- Social Work: This department provides emotional and practical support to patients and their families during hospitalization and after discharge.
- Administration: This department manages the operations of the hospital and oversees all the other departments.
Responsibilities of nurse?
The responsibilities of a nurse vary depending on their area of specialization and the type of healthcare facility they work in. However, some common responsibilities of nurses include:
- Assessing patients’ health and medical histories, and monitoring their vital signs.
- Administering medications, treatments, and other medical interventions as prescribed by physicians.
- Collaborating with other healthcare providers to develop and implement patient care plans.
- Educating patients and their families about their medical conditions and treatment options.
- Documenting patients’ medical histories, symptoms, and treatments in their medical records.
- Performing diagnostic tests and analyzing the results.
- Performing nursing procedures such as inserting catheters, changing wound dressings, and providing patient hygiene.
- Advocating for patients’ rights and coordinating their care with other healthcare providers.
- Providing emotional support and counseling to patients and their families.
- Participating in continuing education and training to maintain and update their nursing knowledge and skills.
Nurses are also responsible for following safety protocols and infection control measures to prevent the spread of infections and ensure the safety of patients and healthcare workers. They work under the supervision of physicians and other healthcare professionals and play a critical role in providing high-quality patient care.
Why did you choose nursing profession?
- Desire to help others: Nursing is a profession that involves caring for and helping others, which can be a fulfilling and rewarding experience for those who have a strong desire to make a positive impact on people’s lives.
- Job security: Nursing is a high-demand profession, with job growth projected to be much faster than average for all occupations. This means that nurses can enjoy job security and stability throughout their career.
- Personal and professional growth: Nursing provides opportunities for personal and professional growth, as well as ongoing learning and development.
- Competitive salary: Nurses can earn competitive salaries and benefits, which can make the profession an attractive choice for those looking for a stable and financially rewarding career.
- Flexibility: Nursing offers a variety of work settings, including hospitals, clinics, schools, and nursing homes, which can provide flexibility in terms of work schedule and location.
What kind of drugs used in emergency department?
Some of the commonly used drugs in emergency medicine include:
- Analgesics: These are drugs used to manage pain in patients, such as acetaminophen, ibuprofen, and morphine.
- Anticoagulants: These are drugs used to prevent the formation of blood clots, such as heparin and warfarin.
- Antiemetics: These are drugs used to treat nausea and vomiting, such as ondansetron and metoclopramide.
- Antihistamines: These are drugs used to treat allergic reactions, such as diphenhydramine and loratadine.
- Bronchodilators: These are drugs used to open up the airways and treat respiratory distress, such as albuterol and ipratropium.
- Corticosteroids: These are drugs used to reduce inflammation and treat conditions such as asthma and allergic reactions, such as prednisone and dexamethasone.
- Epinephrine: This is a medication used in emergency situations to treat severe allergic reactions and anaphylaxis.
- Vasopressors: These are drugs used to increase blood pressure in patients with severe hypotension, such as dopamine and norepinephrine.
- Sedatives: These are drugs used to calm and relax patients, such as diazepam and lorazepam.